Agent-based modeling is one of the most powerful methods for the study of complex systems, whether these systems are biological, social or economic. Agent-based modeling essentially is a specific class of computer simulations where the agents can be programmed to represent humans, animals, insitutions, technologies, languages, cells, and pretty much any ontological entity that has some decision making power and interacts with other entitites (similar or not), as well as with an environment. The power of agent-based modeling lies in: 1. understanding macro level pattern formation in heterogenous, non-deterministic (or seemingly non-deterministic systems) from micro behaviors, and 2. in exploring possible scenarios and a full parametetric space when laboratory conditions or real phenomena data do not permit such experiments. While there are other extremely useful applications of ABMs, it is specifically because of these two reasons that ABMs can be a great methodological resource for economics and astrobiology questions.
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"A good system can transform complexity into chaos." (SELF-ANNIHILATING SENTENCES - Saul Gorn's Compendium Of Rarely Used Cliches, 1985)